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Introduction and Test of Lightning Network Function Based on Qtum

Introduction and Test of Lightning Network Function Based on Qtum
https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/SWTKnnDCq22W_G20pabpdg
The scalability of block chain is the key to realize massive transaction. The Current Bitcoin network can achieve a maximum of 7 processing power per second, the Qtum network can now achieve Bitcoin 10 with the processing power,But forMassive transactions are not enough (e-commerce applications, for example, in recent years Alibaba dual 11 shopping festival, Alipay network Peak transactions over 100000 transactions per second (TPS), Visa on the 2013 holiday period, the implementation of 47000 transactions per second (TPS)).In order to solveThe processing and storage problems brought about by this massive transaction, Joseph Poon presents a lightning network (lightning Network) solution, Lightning Networkis a centralized system, no need to trust each other and a third party can achieve real-time, massive network of transactions. The basic idea is that the trading parties in the chain through the trading script to create payment channels, after the two sides real-time, massive payment transactions in the chain completed, through the link to a number of channels can achieve any two points between the fund transactions, the completion of value transfer, without the trust of the third party for funds and settlement These transfers can be carried out along the routing path between untrusted parties through a contract.
C-lightning is a reference implementation of the Lightning network on the Bitcoin block chain, and can now support the payment channel creation, receiving and payment functions of the Lightning network. Qtum on the basis of c-lightning made a corresponding modification to form a qtum-lightning, so that under qtum can also achieve such as channel creation, real-time transactions, small transactions and other functions. The following tests are performed on these lightning network functions through the Qtum backbone Network (mainnet).
1. Test environment
Two sets of Ubuntu 16.04 of computers, installed with Qtum core and qtum-lightning. Qtum-core is used to connect the qtum backbone network, qtum-lightning the node to achieve the Lightning network function.
2. Lightning Network Test
This test, through a node and B-node to establish a payment channel to achieve real-time, small payment function, the main process includes: Capital preparation, connection establishment, channel establishment, payment transactions. The test realized the funds to deposit 0.1QTUM to the channel and paid 0.00000001 qtum from Node B to Node A.
2.1 Get information for two nodes First get information about the node for subsequent operations:
Node A:192.168.77.188
{ "id" : "0298b904689755a051441f1a8828e5d3aa46633cac21bc6bd8ce75328508e71ec0", "port" : 9735, "network" : "Qtum", "version" : "a787b86", "blockheight" : 28906 }
Node B:192.168.77.76
{ "id" : "03977a1862418d6989453f8f1fc793120830463b1beda1e951e39e947ec09f2208", "port" : 9735, "network" : "qtum", "version" : "a787b86", "blockheight" : 28927 }
2.2 Create a payment channel
The channel of Lightning Network is to realize the start of the chain trading, after the channel is established, it can realize the transaction under the chain, no need to broadcast to the chain. The creation process is to store the money that is used to establish the channel in the wallet address that is managed by the node, and to join the pool of funds, after which you can create a lightning network channel using a portion of the fund pool amount.
Prepare a sum of money:
First send the funds to node B node with address: cli/lightning-cli newaddr # to get a new address return: MUNPTmB7U8phjeibPDooKzVfsa2CQGPuME qtum-cli sendtoaddress MUNPTmB7U8phjeibPDooKzVfsa2CQGPuME 0.3 # deposit 0.3 QTUM funds
Get transaction records:
Qtum-cli getrawtransaction 6c73d136bacd91d59025fe5da1645864beaad69a8a6436d70b7dbfe02bbfecdd
Returns: 0200000001181bd1846baf6264b970086f3da5aa8d35c7604fcc601904d7c64cdc5417048a010000006b483045022100cdd4461077c76c90c879e97 414c6ae 8d1612209f145 12cc 9a18859 EF 229a67c902204 14cf 6149b8766 e80daf 5879948095850c84755c6 A 47c8f2d91 E 1e13250f117401210359a8 6e828760164102000000001976a9140 de97fc 8e6c79f362f324f6 b8adbeeedddf103bf88acef700000832d8b5d3118b7017b48a38b17237e4d1939e5cc7804eafceae6221f7a4efeffffff0280c3c9010000000017a914e088ca565bde2b4c6698d78a2ec647a53b02
Add to fund pool:
cli / lightning-cli addfunds 0200000001181bd1846baf6264b970086f3da5aa8d35c7604fcc601904d7c64cdc5417048a010000006b483045022100cdd4461077c76c90c879e97414c6ae8d1612209f14512cc9a18859ef229a67c90220414cf6149b8766e80daf5879948095850c84755c6a47c8f2d91e1e13250f117401210359a8832d8b5d3118b7017b48a38b17237e4d1939e5cc7804eafceae6221f7a4efeffffff0280c3c9010000000017a914e088ca565bde2b4c6698d78a2ec647a53b026e828760164102000000001976a9140de97fc8e6c79f362f324f6b8adbeeedddf103bf88acef700000
{ "outputs" : 1, "satoshis" : 30000000 }
Create Lightning Network Channel
First connect to node A through node B:
Cli/lightning-cli connect 192.168.77.188 9735 "0298b904689755a051441f1a8828e5d3aa46633cac21bc6bd8ce75328508e71ec0"
return:
{ "id" : "0298b904689755a051441f1a8828e5d3aa46633cac21bc6bd8ce75328508e71ec0" }
Node B deposits 0.1QTUM funds into the channel:
Cli/lightning-cli fundchannel "0298b904689755a051441f1a8828e5d3aa46633cac21bc6bd8ce75328508e71ec0" The actual value of 10000000 funds needs to be divided by 100000000 is based on QTUM pricing.
2.3 Making payments in the lightning network channel The payment process in the lightning network channel is initiated by the receiving side. The receiving party A first generates a receipt of its own receipt, and then the sending party B can obtain a value from B to the amount of the paid payment. A's payment routing, according to the routing information, can send itself to the A node.
Produce QTUM receipt document at node A: cli/lightning-cli invoice 1 a # Receive 0.00000001 QTUM Return:
{ "rhash" : "3b8d42fb10dd451f42babcc962c17c12b9163dd2b03a1f12f968789bb80c1cf2" }
At the Node B, the route to the A node to send funds is:
Cli/lightning-cli getroute 0298b904689755a051441f1a8828e5d3aa46633cac21bc6bd8ce75328508e71ec0 1 1 Back:
{
"route" :
[
{ "id" : "0298b904689755a051441f1a8828e5d3aa46633cac21bc6bd8ce75328508e71ec0", "channel" : "28926:2:0", "msatoshi" : 1, "delay" : 36 }
]
}
Send an amount of 0.00000001 QTUM to node A from node B:
Cli/lightning-cli sendpay '[ { "id" : "0298b904689755a051441f1a8828e5d3aa46633cac21bc6bd8ce75328508e71ec0", "channel" : "28926:2:0", "msatoshi" : 1, "delay" : 36 } ]' 3b8d42fb10dd451f42babcc962c17c12b9163dd2b03a1f12f968789bb80c1cF2
3 Check the result after payment
In the lightning network channel, payments can be settled immediately. After node B sends a sendpay to A, the new allocation result of the channel's funds is generated in real time. You can check the distribution of channel funds by viewing the information of nodes A and B.
A node
Cli/lightning-cli getpeers
return:
{ "peers" :
[
{ "unique_id" : 9, "state" : "CHANNELD_AWAITING_LOCKIN", "netaddr" : "::ffff:192.168.77.76:51860", "peerid" : "03977a1862418d6989453f8f1fc793120830463b1beda1e951e39e947ec09f2208" , "connected" : true , "owner" : " Lightning_channe ld" , "msatoshi_to_us" : 1 , "msatoshi_total" : 10000000000 } ] }
It can be seen that the A node received 0.00000001 QTUM, the total amount of the channel is unchanged, there is no formalities.
Node B
Cli/lightning-cli getpeers
return:
{
"peers" :
[
{ "unique_id" : 10, "state" : "CHANNELD_NORMAL", "netaddr" : "192.168.77.188:9735", "peerid" : "0298b904689755a051441f1a8828e5d3aa46633cac21bc6bd8ce75328508e71ec0", "connected" : true, "owner" : "lightning_channeld", " chanNel" : "28926:2:0" , "msatoshi_to_us" : 9999999999 , "msatoshi_total" : 10000000000 } ] }
After Node B stores 0.1QTUM and sends 0.00000001QTUM before sending it, it still has 0.09999999QTUM remaining. At the same time, the total amount of the channel seen does not change.
Through the above tests, it can be seen that the Qtum-based lightning network can basically realize real-time transactions and settlements under the chain. Only transactions involving two parties can be used without paying commissions, making it possible to make payments such as small payments. Theoretically, by setting up a large number of lightning network channels under the Qtum chain and placing transactions under the chain, real-time, massive transactions can be realized.
submitted by thisthingismud to Qtum [link] [comments]

Qtum Quantum Chain Design Document -- Add RPC Calls (Seven)

Qtum original design document summary (7) -- Qtum added RPC call
https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/JdJLxEIBjD255qey6ITO_g
Qtum's core program, qtumd, runs all core logic including validation and creation of blocks. However, to achieve interaction with qtumd, you need to rely on RPC (Remote Procedure Call). Through RPC, you can interact with qtumd from the outside to implement basic functions such as sending and receiving QTUM and obtaining blockchain information.
The initial version of the Qtum RPC call is compatible with Bitcoin. On this basis, because the Qtum blockchain is different from Bitcoin, and Qtum supports the smart contract function that Bitcoin does not have, it is necessary to add a new RPC or improve the existing RPC to achieve Qtum. Full interaction of nodes.
The following section captures the relevant original design documents (with Chinese translation) for the Qtum RPC call from the early Qtum development team (ps: QTUM<#> or QTUMCORE<#> in the document is the internal design document number):
 
QTUM-35: Add RPC call for off-chain contract execution
Description: In Ethereum there are some contract's that can be executed without needing to be on the blockchain. This is useful especially for retrieving the status and results from a contract, and will make no changes to the on-chain storage or state. We should Add an RPC call to cover this functionality
 
Callcontract [address] [data]
Returns/prints hex encoded return data
 
Task: Add an RPC (Remote Procedure Call) call to run under the chain Description: It is useful to have some contracts in Ethereum that are not working on the blockchain, especially when retrieving the status and results of contracts, and not changing the storage and status of the chain. We should add an RPC call to implement this functionality. Callcontract [address] [data] Return / print hexadecimal encoded return data
 
QTUMCORE-14: Add "callcontract" RPC call for off-chain computations
Description: There should be an RPC call that executes a contract without requiring interaction with the blockchain network, and thus without gas or other fees. Callcontract contract-address data (sender) This should execute the contract locally, and if the contract function returns data, it should be returned/printed by the RPC call. Sender is optional and does not require an owned vout (it can be any valid address)
Task: Add a "callcontract" RPC call for the calculation of the chain Description: There should be an RPC call that does not require interaction with the blockchain network to run the contract, so it does not require gas or other fees. The format is as follows: Callcontract contract-address data (sender) It can run the contract locally, and if the contract function returns data, the RPC call can return/print the data. The sender is optional and does not need to have vout (it can be any valid address).
The above two tasks add a callcontract RPC call interface to implement a local chain call contract, which is convenient for viewing contract status or obtaining contract results without changing any information on the chain.
 
QTUMCORE-7: Add "createcontract" RPC call
 
Description: A new RPC call should be added call "deploycontract" "createcontract". This RPC call will be used to deploy a new smart contract to the Qtum blockchain.
Syntax:
Deploycontract createcontract gas-price gas-limit bytecode [sender-address] [txfee] [broadcast]
If no address is specified, then it should be picked randomly from the wallet. If no outputs exist to spend using that sender-address, then an error should be shown and no transaction created.
Tsfee is optional and if not specified should use the same auto txfee as the rest of the wallet (for example sendtoaddress uses an auto txfee)
Broadcast should default to true. If broadcast is false, then the transaction is created and signed, and then printed to the screen in hex rather than broadcast to the network.
If the sender-address does have an output, but it is not enough to cover the gas costs and tx fees, then any UTXO owned by the wallet should be used by the transaction to cover those fees. (not all funds must come from sender -address, but the sender-address must be vin[0])
After execution, if broadcast is true, it should print the txid and the new contract address.
Task: Add "createcontract" RPC call
Description: Add a "createcontract" RPC call that will be used to deploy a new smart contract on the Qtum blockchain.
grammar:
Createcontract gas-price gas-limit bytecode [sender-address] [txfee] [broadcast]
Among them, sender-address (sender address) is optional. If no address is specified, an address will be randomly selected from the wallet. If there is no output available in the sender-address, an error will be displayed and the transaction will not be created.
Txfee (transaction fee) is optional. If not specified, it should use the same automatic txfee as the rest of the wallet (for example, the automatic txfee used by sendtoaddress)
Broadcast should be true by default. If broadcast is false, the transaction is created and signed, and will be printed to the screen in hexadecimal format instead of being broadcast to the network.
If the sender-address does have an output, but it does not cover the gas charges and transaction fees, then any UTXO owned by the wallet can be used by the transaction to pay for these charges. (Not all funds must come from sender-address, but sender-address must be vin[0])
After running, if broadcast is true, the transaction id and the new contract address are printed.
The above task adds the RPC call createcontract for creating and deploying new smart contracts, and describes the specific meaning of the parameters and their corresponding behavior.
 
QTUMCORE-13: Add "sendtocontract" RPC call
Description: An rpc call should be adding for sending data and (optionally) money to a contract that has been deployed on the blockchain.
The format should be:
Sendtocontract contract-address data (value gaslimit gasprice sender broadcast)
This should create a contract call transaction using OP_CALL.
Value defaults to 0.
If no address is specified, then it should be picked randomly from the wallet. If no outputs exist to spend using that sender-address, then an error should be shown and no transaction created.
Broadcast should default to true. If broadcast is false, then the transaction is created and signed, and then printed to the screen in hex rather than broadcast to the network.
If the sender-address does have an output, but it is not enough to cover the gas costs, tx fees, and value, then any UTXO owned by the wallet should be used by the transaction to cover the remainder. (not all funds must Come from sender-address, but the sender-address must be vin[0])
After execution, if broadcast is true, it should print the txid and the new contract address.
Task: Add "sendtocontract" RPC call
Description: In order to send data or funds to a contract already deployed on the blockchain, an RPC call should be added.
The format should be:
Sendtocontract contract-address data (value gaslimit gasprice sender broadcast)
You can use OP_CALL to create a contract call transaction.
Value defaults to 0.
The sender-address is optional. If no address is specified, an address will be randomly selected from the wallet. If there are no outputs available in the sender-address, an error will be displayed and no transaction will be created.
Broadcast is default to true. If broadcast is false, then the transaction is created and signed and then printed to the screen in hexadecimal format instead of being broadcast to the network.
If the sender-address does have an output, but the output is not sufficient to cover the gas fee, transaction cost, and value, then any UTXO owned by the wallet can be traded to pay the remaining fee. (Not all funds must come from sender-address, but sender-address must be vin[0])
After running, if broadcast is true, the transaction id and the new contract address should be printed.
In order to implement the contract on the chain, the above task adds a sendtocontract RPC call. Its functionality is similar to callcontract and can be used to run contracts. The biggest difference is that sendtocontract implements the chain call, which requires the cost of the Gas, and the running result needs to be verified by the entire network node, and will change the storage state on the contract chain.
 
QTUMCORE-81:create getTransactionReceipt rpc call
Description: We need to create getTransactionReceipt rpc call that returns the same values ​​as here:
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JavaScript-API#web3ethgettransactionreceipt
Most important part is the logs. they can either be stored into a separate db or use one of the existing tx or eth related db.
Task: Create getTransactionReceipt RPC call
Description: We need to create a getTransactionReceipt RPC call that returns the same value as in the following link:
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JavaScript-API#web3ethgettransactionreceipt
The most important part is the log. They can be stored in a separate database, or they can use existing transactions or Ethereum-related databases.
The above task adds a gettransactionreceipt RPC call to the smart contract log to get the contract transaction related logs, which is very useful for understanding the status of smart contracts.
 
QTUMCORE-90: add searchlogs rpc call
Description: we need to add an rpc call to allow us to search the eth event logs, we need to support similar parameters as eth:
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JavaScript-API#web3ethfilter
So it would be: searchlogs(fromBlock, toBlock, address, topics)
fromBlock, toBlock should support latest keyword
Adderss: optional should be an array of one or more addresses
Topics: optional (check the link above)
Unlike eth where you have to call watch, this method should just output the filtered logs
Task: Add searchlogs RPC call
Description: We need to add a PRC call that allows searching for smart contract event logs, and we need to support parameters similar to Ethereum:
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JavaScript-API#web3ethfilter
So its form is as follows: searchlogs(fromBlock, toBlock, address, topics)
fromBlock: toBlock should support the latest keywords
Address: an optional array of one or more addresses
Topics: optional (refer to the link above)
Unlike the Ethereum, which needs to call watch, this method only outputs the filtered log.
The above task adds an RPC for retrieving the smart contract event log to facilitate screening of event logs that satisfy the condition. Users can quickly get the contract status they care about.
 
QTUMCORE-92: add getcode and getstorageat rpc calls
Description: We need to implement Qtum equivalent of these 2 rpc calls:
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JavaScript-API#web3ethgetcode
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JavaScript-API#web3ethgetstorageat
No need to implement callback function for now.
For the default block, we can use block number, or keyword "latest" (default)
Task: Add getcode and getstorageat RPC calls
Description: We need to implement the QTP version of the RPC call equivalent to the following two RPCs:
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JavaScript-API#web3ethgetcode
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JavaScript-API#web3ethgetstorageat
There is currently no need to implement a callback function.
For the default block, we can use the block number, or the keyword "latest" (default)
The above task implements an equivalent RPC similar to Ethereum for obtaining contract code and storing information.
 
QTUMCORE-97: Change validation of contract rpc calls inputs
Description: Change validation of contract rpc calls inputs to accept only hex
Task: Modify the verification of the input value of the contract RPC call
Description: Modify the validation of the input value of the contract RPC call to accept only hexadecimal.
The above task stipulates that the RPC of the verification contract only accepts the hexadecimal data parameters, so that the rpc interface is as consistent as possible.
 
QTUMCORE-123: Add "excepted": to gettransactionreceipt
Description: We need to add the "excepted": field to gettransactionreceipt rpc call which lists "None" if no exception occured, or lists the actual exception that happened.
The same lessons is in callcontract call.
We need the change to be backward compatible, which means it should not break the current logs db, but people who want to see exceptions would have to recreate/reindex the logs db
Task: Add "excepted": field in gettransactionreceipt
Description: We need to add the "excepted": field to the gettransactionreceipt RPC call. If no exception occurs, it will display "None", otherwise it will list the actual exception.
The same is true for Callcontract calls.
We need to modify it to be forward compatible, which means it can't break the current log database, but if you want to see these exceptions, you must rebuild/reindex the log database.
The above tasks enable a number of RPCs associated with smart contracts to throw exceptions that are convenient for the user to understand the wrong running state of the contract and also help developers debug the code.
 
QTUMCORE-124:Add "changeToSender" to sendtoaddress and make sure the "Don't use change address" option also affects sendtoaddress
Description: We need to add "changeToSender" parameter to sendtoaddress rpc call, same as we did for sendtocontract.
Also we need to make sure the "Don't use change address" also affects sendtoaddress
Task: Add "changeToSender" to sendtoaddress and make sure the "Don't use change address" option is also valid for sendtoaddress
Description: We need to add the "changeToSender" parameter to the sendtoaddress RPC call, which is also added to the sendtocontract.
We also need to make sure that the "Don't use change address" option is also valid for sendtoaddress.
Due to the UTXO model, the change of the contract call is easy to confuse the user. Therefore, the above task adds the option of "do not use the change address" for the sendtoaddressRPC, from which the user can choose to return to the original address.
 
QTUMCORE-125: Add callcontract support to "createrawtransaction" rpc call
Description: As requested by some exchanges, which use "createrawtransaction" to create raw transactions before signing on a cold wallet, we need to add
1- raw contract data support to "createrawtransaction" rpc call.
Currently "createrawtransaction" supports two types of outputs in the outputs arguments:
First is "address": x.xxx which created a standard P2PKH output
The second is "data": "hex" which creates an OP_RETURN output
We need to add:
1- "callcontract":
{contractAddress:"address", data:"data", amount:"amount", gasLimit:"gaslimit", gasPrice:"gasPrice"}
Where:
contractAddress: a valid contract address (valid hash160 hex data)
Data: the hex data to add in the OP_CALL output (should validate it's hex data, you can check the validation done in sendtocontract)
Amount (optional): the value of the output (value in QTUM to send with the call), should be a valid amount, default 0
gasLimit (optional): the gas limit for the transaction (same as in sendtocontract), defaults to the default/DGP value
GasPrice (optional): the gas price for the transaction (same as in sendtocontract), defaults to the default/DGP value
After parsing and validation all the values ​​an OP_CALL output should be constructed
Similar to this:
CScript scriptPubKey = CScript() << CScriptNum(VersionVM::GetEVMDefault().toRaw()) << CScriptNum(nGasLimit) << CScriptNum(nGasPrice) << ParseHex(datahex) << ParseHex(contractaddress) << OP_CALL;
Task: Make the "createrawtransaction" RPC call support callcontract
Description: Before some transactions are signed on the cold wallet, use "createrawtransaction" to create the original transaction. At the request of these exchanges, we should add:
1 -- original contract data support for "createrawtransaction" RPC calls
Currently, for the outputs parameter, "createrawtransaction" supports two types of outputs:
The first type is "address": x.xxx, which creates a standard P2PKH output
The second type is "data": "hexadecimal", creating an OP_RETURN output
We need to add:
1 -- "callcontract":
{contractAddress:"address", data:"data", amount:"amount", gasLimit:"gaslimit", gasPrice:"gasPrice"}
among them,
contractAddress: a valid contract address (valid hash 160 hex data)
Data: hexadecimal data added in OP_CALL output (should be verified as hexadecimal data, you can check if it is verified in sendtocontract)
Amount (optional): The value of output (the value in QTUM, sent with this call), should be a valid value, the default is 0
gasLimit (optional): the gas limit of the transaction (same as sendtocontract), the default is the default/DGP value
gasPrice (optional): the gas price of the transaction (same as sendtocontract), defaults to the default/DGP value
After parsing and verifying all the values, you should build an OP_CALL output.
The build method is similar to the following:
CScript scriptPubKey = CScript() << CScriptNum(VersionVM::GetEVMDefault().toRaw()) << CScriptNum(nGasLimit) << CScriptNum(nGasPrice) << ParseHex(datahex) << ParseHex(contractaddress) << OP_CALL;
Prior to the above task, the createrawtransaction RPC call was consistent with Bitcoin and could only be used to send standard transactions. Qtum extends it to compatible contract transactions. From then on, the RPC can be used to create original contract transactions for developers or exchanges.
Summary
The RPC call is the most important way to interact with the qtumd core program. It provides a call interface for getting all kinds of information on the blockchain and local. It is the basis for many applications such as wallets, browsers, and exchanges. A good RPC interface design enables developers to get more accurate information and develop more feature-rich applications. Qtum provides developers with sophisticated RPC calls, making it possible for many third-party applications, such as predicting market projects, Bodhi.
submitted by thisthingismud to Qtum [link] [comments]

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